Globally 83 countries have legislation to mandate fortification at least one industrially milled cereal grain.
- 82 countries plus the Punjab province in Pakistan have legislation to fortify wheat flour.
- 13 countries have legislation to fortify maize products.
- 6 countries have legislation to fortify rice.
The countries with legislation to fortify at least one grain are blue on the map below. Click on the links at right for maps reflecting each grain's availability and legislation.
Costa Rica and the United States are the only countries that mandate fortification of all three grains. Papua New Guinea is the only country that requires only rice fortification.
Currently 82 countries require fortification of industrially milled wheat flour. All the mandatory countries fortify wheat flour with at least iron and folic acid except Australia which does not include iron, and Congo, Nigeria, Venezuela, the United Kingdom, and the Philippines which do not include folic acid. Additionally, five countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Gambia, Namibia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates) fortify at least half their industrially milled wheat flour through voluntary efforts.
We estimate that 30% of the world’s industrially milled wheat flour, 48% of industrially milled maize flour, and 1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with at least iron or folic acid through these mandatory and voluntary efforts. See the 2014 Annual Report for an explanation of the calculation.
Brazil, Colombia and the Dominican Republic have large-scale rice fortification programs though rice fortification is not mandatory throughout these countries.
We define mandatory as legislation that has the effect of requiring fortification with at least iron or folic acid. Most countries permit fortification. We only list a country as voluntary if at least 50% of the industrially-milled grain is fortified through voluntary efforts.
For country information, scroll your mouse over the country on the map below. Follow the link to the country profile in the pop-up box or choose the country name from below the map. Also see this legislation spreadsheet for global information that can be sorted by grain, country, or legislative status.
Countries not listed below do not require grain fortification. See the Country Profiles for more data on those countries.
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