How We Get Our Data

Most of this information is provided by the Food Fortification Initiative (FFI) staff and our partners. E-mail us at with any changes.

Legislation Status:

We use the following definitions based on our available information:

  • Mandatory: Country has legislation that has the effect of mandating fortification of one or more types of wheat or maize flour or rice with at least iron or folic acid.
  • Voluntary: Country has standard for fortification, but fortification is not mandatory.
  • Territory: An area under the jurisdiction of another country. We assume the territory follows the food regulations of the governing body and will not have its own fortification legislation. The table at the bottom of this page shows areas listed as countries by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) but which are territories according to the 2015 World Almanac.

Available in food supply (grams/capita/day):

Food consumption information is available from several sources. To be consistent in our country profiles, we use data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). For each grain, we use the FAO data on grain available for human consumption on a grams per capita per day basis.

  • For wheat: This figure represents a default composition of wheat, flour of wheat, macaroni, bread, bulgur, pastry, starch of wheat, breakfast cereals, and wafers
  • For maize: This figure represents a default composition of maize, maize flour, and other maize products included in food consumption.
  • For rice: This figure represents a default composition of paddy rice, husked rice, milled rice, broken rice, and other rice products available for human consumption.

Number of industrial mills

For wheat, this information is often based on a Country Focus article in World Grain magazine. See the “Departments” option at National milling associations and other partners also provide this information.

We frequently lack information on the number of industrial maize and rice mills per country. If you have that information, please e-mail

Percent produced in industrial mills

We assume that 100% of wheat flour in each country is industrially milled unless one of our partners provides other information. A country with a low percentage of flour produced in industrial mills presents technical challenges for flour fortification.

In contrast, we assume that 0% of maize flour and rice are industrially milled unless we have country-specific data to indicate otherwise. If you have that information, please e-mail

Nutrients Added

The Food Fortification Initiative staff and our country partners provide information regarding the nutrients added to cereal grains in fortification. The amounts listed are in parts per million, which is the same as milligram per kilogram.

When a country allows a range of nutrients in the fortification standard, the amount listed in the country profile is the average of the highest and lowest levels allowed.

To submit new information for a country profile, contact us at

Territory Governing Country
American Samoa United States
Aruba Netherlands
Bermuda United Kingdom
British Indian Ocean Territory United Kingdom
British West Indies (Leeward Islands - Montserrat, British Virgin Islands and Anguilla; Cayman Island; Turks and Caicos Islands) United Kingdom
Christmas Island Australia
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Australia
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico United States
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands United States
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) United Kingdom
French Guiana France
French Polynesia France
Gibraltar United Kingdom
Greenland Denmark
Guadeloupe France
Guam United States
Martinique France
Mayotte France
New Caledonia and Dependencies France
Norfolk Island Australia
Pacific Ocean Territories (Pitcairn Island) UK
Reunion France
Saint Helena United Kingdom
St. Pierre and Miquelon France
Sardinia Italy
Sint Eustatius Netherlands
Tokelau New Zealand
Wake Atoll (Wake, Wilkes and Peale Islands) United States
Wallis and Futuna France