How We Get Our Data

Most of this information is provided by the Food Fortification Initiative (FFI) staff and our partners. E-mail us at with any changes.

Legislation Status:

We use the following definitions based on our available information:

  • Mandatory: Country has legislation that has the effect of mandating fortification of one or more types of wheat or maize flour or rice with at least iron or folic acid.
  • Voluntary: Country has standard for fortification, but fortification is not mandatory.

Available in food supply (grams/capita/day):

Food consumption information is available from several sources. To be consistent in our country profiles, we use data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). For each grain, we use the FAO data on grain available for human consumption on a grams per capita per day basis.

  • For wheat: This figure represents a default composition of wheat, flour of wheat, macaroni, bread, bulgur, pastry, starch of wheat, breakfast cereals, and wafers
  • For maize: This figure represents a default composition of maize, maize flour, and other maize products included in food consumption.
  • For rice: This figure represents a default composition of paddy rice, husked rice, milled rice, broken rice, and other rice products available for human consumption.

Number of industrial mills

For wheat, this information is often based on a Country Focus article in World Grain magazine. See the “Departments” option at National milling associations and other partners also provide this information.

We frequently lack information on the number of industrial maize and rice mills per country. If you have that information, please e-mail

Percent produced in industrial mills

We assume that 100% of wheat flour in each country is industrially milled unless one of our partners provides other information. A country with a low percentage of flour produced in industrial mills presents technical challenges for flour fortification.

In contrast, we usually assume that 0% of maize flour and rice are industrially milled unless we have country-specific data to indicate otherwise. In the FFI region of Europe and the United States, we assume that 100% of maize flour is industrially milled. If you have additional information, please e-mail

Nutrients Added

The Food Fortification Initiative staff and our country partners provide information regarding the nutrients added to cereal grains in fortification. The amounts listed are in parts per million, which is the same as milligram per kilogram.

When a country allows a range of nutrients in the fortification standard, the amount listed in the country profile is the average of the highest and lowest levels allowed.

To submit new information for a country profile, contact us at